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  Rosacea Order

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Why does Bio-Care Rosacea Formula Concentrate work
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease that mainly affects adults over 30 years of age, being more frequent in women.

Key Ingredients
Tree Peony Bark (mudanpi)



Pharmacological Activities

1. Anti-inflammation
Decoction of the root bark and paeonol inhibited auricle edema induced by dimethylbenzene in mice, capillary permeability increase induced by endotoxin in mice, and plantar edema induced by carrageenin, albumen, formaldehyde, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and bradykinin in rats. Adrenal glands removal did not alter the anti-inflammatory response. Paeonol antagonized prostaglandin E2 synthesis in inflamed tissues and inhibited polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration in carrageenin-induced pleuritis [10-11]. The root xylem inhibited dimethylbenzene-induced inflammation and carrageenin-induced plantar edema [12].

2. Anti-allergy
Paeonol suppressed Forssman cutaneous vasculitis in guinea pigs, reversible cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats, active and passive Arthus plantar edema in rats, delayed type plantar edema induced by sheep erythrocyte and bovine ovalbumin in mice, and contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice. The anti-allergic activity of paeonol was mediated by selective inhibition of the hemolytic response of the classical pathway of the complement system and regulation of cell immunity [13].

3. Anti-bacteria and anti-fungi
In vitro, decoction of the root bark inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albicans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus anthracis, Proteus vulgaris, £\-hemolytic Streptococcus, £]-hemolytic Streptococcus [14] and Malassezia [15].

References
10. GZ Wu, BQ Hang, JX Hang, GX Ling. Anti-inflammatory effect of Cortex Moutan Radicis. Journal of China Pharmaceutical University. 1990, 21(4): 222-225
11. GZ Wu, BQ Hang, JX Hang, GX Ling. Anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism of paeonol. Journal of China Pharmaceutical University.1989, 20(3): 147-150
12. YF Li, WJ Zhang, LY Huang, JM Shi. Study on pharmacological of Cortex Moutan and core. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1997, 22 (4): 214-216
13. GZ Wu, BQ Hang, JX Hang, GX Lin. Anti-hypersensitive effect of paeonol. Journal of China Pharmaceutical University. 1990, 21(2): 103-106
14. FR Ding, SC Qiu, LH Guo, ZL Gong, X Yang. Research on the in vitro growth inhibition effect of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. (PSA) on bacteria. Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research. 2003, 14(8): 452
15. XH Zheng, J Gao, Y Zheng, AE Xu. Experimental study about the inhibition effects of nine kinds of traditional medicine on the isolated Malassezia strain. Chinese Journal of Dermatovenerology of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine. 2003, 2(1): 16-18

Turmeric Extract(Curcuma longa)




Pharmacological Activities

1.Anti-inflammatory activity - There is a great number of papers in the literature relating the activity of compounds extracted from C. longa L. being potent inhibitors of inflammation. These substances can be classified as curcuminoids, analogues of diarylheptanoids. There are two models of inflammation to be studied: chronic models (cotton pellet and granuloma pouch), where the inflammation and granulomas develop during a period of time (several days), indicating the proliferative phase of inflammation; and acute models, where acute effects of anti-inflammatory agents can be studied, testing their inhibitory action on the development of rat paw edema.
Mukophadhyay et al. (1982) demonstrated the activity of curcumin and other semi-synthetic analogues (sodium curcuminate, diacetyl curcumin, triethyl curcumin and tetrahydro curcumin) in carrageenin-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma models of inflammation in rats. In these experiments the authors used ferulic acid and phenylbutazone (reference drug). Curcumin and its analogues showed similar action in carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats; however the sodium curcuminate was the most potent analogue and was more water-soluble than curcumin. Among the curcumin analogues, triethyl curcumin was the most potent anti-inflammatory in the chronic model of inflammation, when compared with the others and with the drug reference; and tetrahydro curcumin showed no activity. In the acute inflammation condition, all the substances were more effective. The authors concluded that the activity of the compounds used in these experiments, would depend on the model of inflammation. Arora et al. (1971) investigated the anti-inflammatory activity in different fractions of the petroleum ether extract of the rhizomes of turmeric (two constituents) in animals. They found that the extracts reduced the granuloma growth and no toxic effects were observed. Chandra and Gupta (1972) demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic actions of volatile oil of C. longa L. Ghatak and Basu (1972) showed the action of sodium curcuminate as an anti-inflammatory agent, being better than curcumin and hydrocortisone acetate, in experimental inflammation induced by carrageenin and formalin in albino rats (ED50 = 144 £gg/kg), its more soluble in water than curcumin and no side effects were observed.

2.Antioxidant activity - Unnikrishnan and Rao (1995) studied the antioxidative properties of curcumin and its three derivatives (demethoxy curcumin, bisdemethoxy curcumin and diacethyl curcumin). The authors demonstrated that these substances provide a protection of hemoglobin from oxidation at a concentration as low as 0.08 mM, except the diacethyl curcumin which has little effect in the inhibition of nitrite induced oxidation of hemoglobin.
The effect of curcumin on lipid peroxidation has also been studied in various models by several authors. Curcumin is a good antioxidant and inhibits lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes, erythrocyte membranes and brain homogenates (Pulla Reddy & Lokesh 1994). The lipid peroxidation has a main role in the inflammation, in heart diseases, and in cancer.
Turmeric can lower lipid peroxidation by maintaining the activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase at higher levels. These enzymes play an important role in the regulation of lipid peroxidation (Pulla Reddy & Lokesh 1992). Pulla Reddy and Lokesh (1992) observed that curcumin is capable of scavenging oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which are important to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Another article about curcuminoids as potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation was described by Sreejayan Rao (1994), in which the authors showed that three curcuminoids were inhibitors of lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and rat liver microsomes. All of these compounds were more active than a -Tocopherol (drug reference) and curcumin showed the better results. In the case of curcumin, the methoxy group seems to play a major role. The phenolic and the methoxy group on the phenyl ring and the 1,3 _ diketone system seems to be important structural features that can contribute to these effects. The diketone system is a potent ligand for metals such as iron, used in these experiments. Another fact proposed in the literature is that the antioxidant activity increases when the phenolic group with a methoxy is at the ortho position. The mechanism of action of curcumin is still unknown.

3.Anti-bacterial activity - Curcuma oil was tested against cultures of Staphylococcus albus, S. aureus and Bacillus typhosus, inhibiting the growth of S. albus and S. aureus in concentrations up to 1 to 5,000 (Chopra et al. 1941). Bhavani Shankar and Murthy (1979) investigated the activity of turmeric fractions against some intestinal bacteria in vitro. In this work, total inhibition of growth of Lactobacilli in the presence of whole turmeric was observed (4.5-90 £gl/100 ml). The other fraction, the alcoholic extract, was effective too (10-200 mg/ml), but the inhibition was not equal as the whole turmeric. Curcumin (2.5-50 mg/ml) only inhibited S. aureus.

4. Anti-HIV activity - Mazumber et al. (1995) demonstrated that curcumin has an antiviral activity, being a HIV-1 integrase inhibitor (IC50 = 40 £gM) and suggested that curcumin analogs may be developed as anti-Aids drugs. Data showed that curcumin inhibited the replication of HIV-1 integrase protein. Eigner and Scholz (1999) reported that curcumin was claimed for anti-HIV-1 and HIV-2 activities in a recent patent application.

References
1.Ammon HPT, Anazodo MI, Safayhi H, Dhawan BN, Srimal RC 1992. Curcumin: a potent inhibitor of Leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL). Planta Med 58: 26.
2. Arora RB, Basu N, Kapoor V, Jain AP 1971. Anti-inflammatory studies on Curcuma longa (Turmeric). Indian J Med Res 59: 1289-1295.
3. Mukophadhyay A, Basu N, Ghatak N, Gujral PK 1982. Anti-inflammatory and irritant activities of curcumin analogues in rats. Agents and Actions 12: 508-515.
4. Scartezzini P, Speroni E 2000. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. J Ethnoparmacol 71: 23-43.
5. Srimal RC, Dhawan BN 1973. Pharmacology of diferuloyl methane (curcumin), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. J Pharm Pharmacol 25: 447-452.
6. Rao, T. S., et al. (1982) Antiinflammatory activity of curcumin analogues. Ind J.
7. Med. Res., 75'574-57 11. Bont'e, F. et al. (1997) Protective effects of curcuminoids on epidermal skin cells under free oxygen radical stress. Planta Med. 63 (3): 265-266.

 
     
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